Union 101

UFCW Local 99 is a powerful voice for working people. The contracts we negotiate for our members deliver the highest wages, secure job protections and superior benefits that put your family first, including union health care, a pension and exclusive members-only discounts.

What is a union?

A labor union is a 501(c)(5) nonprofit, democratic organization of workers who have formally come together to promote their interests and advocate on each other’s behalf.

What this generally looks like in practice is pushing for better wages or working conditions with specific employers, defending individual workers when their rights are violated on the job, championing state and federal laws and new legislation that protect workers rights, and holding irresponsible companies or government agencies accountable in court or by other means when they don’t do their jobs properly.

A few ways we do this is through negotiating contracts between workers and employers that clearly spell out wages and benefits in writing and makes company promises legally binding, through lobby days to make sure elected officials listen to  the workers’ side of the story and aren’t just hearing from highly-paid corporate lobbyists, and through helping get the word out to the general public about the importance of issues impacting working people.

We also just like to have fun together and support good causes. UFCW members participate in events like Light the Night walks for the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, food drives like Stamp Out Hunger, and other social activities together like amusement park days or parades, and hold toy drives to benefit local charities.

What is a union contract?

The UFCW International is made up of lots of smaller local union chapters around the US and Canada. Similar to how the Girl Scouts or Boy Scouts have troop numbers each scout belongs to and does most of their activities with, every UFCW member belongs to a local union that is primarily who they will interact with for most union-related things. A local union can be as small as the workers at one processing facility, or it can be tens of thousands of workers across several states at many employers. Each local union has its own bylaws and elected local union leadership, as well as a unique history that informs what it looks like today.

If you are a UFCW member and don’t know who your local union is, you might be missing out on important news and actions relevant to your area. For help figuring out what local union you belong to, you can check our Local Union locator, or drop us a line and we’ll be glad to help.

“I love my job and thanks to my union, I have very good benefits. I pay very little for my health insurance. I know that there are stores where they do not have a union and pay hundreds of dollars and more if they have family. And that’s something which I don’t have to worry about.”

Beatriz, Local 99 Member

What is a local union? 

The UFCW International is made up of lots of smaller local union chapters around the US and Canada. Similar to how the Girl Scouts or Boy Scouts have troop numbers each scout belongs to and does most of their activities with, every UFCW member belongs to a local union that is primarily who they will interact with for most union-related things. A local union can be as small as the workers at one processing facility, or it can be tens of thousands of workers across several states at many employers. Each local union has its own bylaws and elected local union leadership, as well as a unique history that informs what it looks like today.

If you are a UFCW member and don’t know who your local union is, you might be missing out on important news and actions relevant to your area. For help figuring out what local union you belong to, you can check our Local Union locator, or drop us a line and we’ll be glad to help.

Who joins unions? 

At the UFCW, our membership is made up of slightly more women than men. We have members in all 50 states and Puerto Rico, as well as in Canada. We also have among the youngest memberships of any major labor union, with a high percentage of our members under the age of 35. They work part time and full time. We’re proud of the diversity of our membership.

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There’s a stereotype out there that union members are all older men who work in manufacturing. This is partly because of the dated way the “working class” is often depicted in news articles, movies, and TV shows. But the reality of who joins unions these days is as diverse as our workforce itself. Today, union members work in offices or customer service. They sell sporting goods or stock shelves. If you’re getting a paycheck and you aren’t someone’s boss, you can almost certainly join a union.

“You’ve got backup with union. I feel protected. We have rights. These are human rights, and it’s the union that stands up for those rights. The union is here to help people and talk to you about any problems you may have.”

– Jose, Local 99 Member

There are many different unions out there, and most tend to focus on a few main industries, but there’s no rule that says all nurses belong to one union or all retail workers belong to another. At the UFCW, most of our membership is made up of members in the grocery, retail, food processing, meat packing, health care, distillery, cannabis, and chemical industries, but we have members who work all kinds of jobs.

What union workers at a given workplace decide to join is up to the workers who initially vote on who will represent them. That decision may be based on what industry they work in, but it could also be something simple like what the nearest union office is or knowing other workers who already belong to a particular union.

It’s also worth noting that people who join unions aren’t people who hate their jobs, or even who don’t like their managers. Most of them love their jobs and want to either make sure they stay good jobs, or care enough about their work to want to make it a better place. While you might love the manager you have now, what would happen if they had to leave and were replaced with someone else who took an entirely different approach? What about problems that are well above what your manager can even address at their level?

If you or someone you know wants to join a union, or is even just curious and wants to learn more about how we work, feel free to drop us a line and we’ll put you in touch with one of our organizers.

What does it mean to organize? 

“Organizing” can be a confusing term for people because it can mean different things in different contexts. Usually when advocacy groups use it, they essentially mean it’s the work done to get a bunch of people on board with an idea or project. Labor unions will often use it as short hand to talk about non-union workers joining the union, but there is a bit more behind it than that.

Have you ever had to organize a party for someone? You have to get the word out it’s happening and get everyone who is helping out to agree on things like what food people are going to bring. Everyone might agree they want a party, but have different ideas about what flavor of ice cream to get or activities to do. But if you want that party to happen, everyone has to come to some basic decisions.

“I’ve worked at non-union stores before and it feels completely different. I feel like I’m definitely treated better working at a union store.”

– Emily, Local 99 Member

In the labor union world, it’s similar. Everyone may agree they want things to be better, but it may take some work to figure out exactly what that looks like. For non-union workers who are looking to start a union at their workplace, there’s the work of letting their coworkers know about the union. Then once a majority of workers agree that they are interested and want to make things better at their work, then there’s the work to figure out exactly what that means to everyone and what issues are the most important. There’s also more tedious work like paperwork to be filed with the National Labor Relations Board.

Because workers are often busy with their jobs and may have enough on their plates as it is, and because it can be helpful to have someone whose only job is to help guide worker through this process, the UFCW employs professional “organizers” who bring their knowledge and experience to help make things easier and provide structure to make sure things are moving forward. You don’t have to go through one of these organizers to join, but almost everyone does since it’s usually an unfamiliar process for most people, and unfortunately anti-union corporate interests have successfully passed rules that make joining intentionally confusing.

If someone is interested in joining the UFCW, the first step we’ll always say is to talk to an organizer who can listen to your concerns and advise about next steps. You don’t have to be an expert, you just have to be willing to work with your coworkers, and have a few ideas about how your workplace might be improved.

How contract negotiations work?

One of the most important benefits of coming together with your colleagues to form a union is gaining the clarity and security of a union contract. Having one means knowing exactly what is expected of you at work, and what you can expect from your employer in return. A union contract is a written agreement between the employer and the employees that details the terms and benefits in a clear and legally-binding way (more on the value of contracts here).

This might not seem like a big deal at first, but consider the power of being able to propose policy changes or raise issues with a company as a whole instead of just taking them individually to a manager. You could have the best manager in the world, but it’s unlikely they have the power to change company-wide scheduling policies, or tackle vital benefits like health care. Drawing up a contract with your company as equal partners is an incredible opportunity to dramatically improve your day to day life at work—and at home.

But how does a contract get written to begin with? The negotiation process can look slightly different from company to company and industry to industry, but here’s what’s generally involved:

You and your coworkers decide together that you want a contract.

Contracts typically expire after 3-4 years (depending on what length of time you and the company agree on together), so many times negotiations begin when an old contract is getting ready to expire. Alternatively, you and your coworkers could have just organized your workplace and this could be your first time sitting down with the company. All of the employees covered under the same contract are called a “bargaining unit.”

You come together to determine what you want to discuss with your employer.

Most discussions begin by starting with what you have now then building upon it, but you are only limited by what you and your coworkers can dream up together. Items up for discussion during negotiations are anything you want to address in your workplace, including, but not limited to:

  • Wages
  • Healthcare
  • Pensions and Retirement
  • Hours and Scheduling
  • Paid time off
  • Premium and holiday pay
  • Working conditions
  • Seniority and advancement

There are many ways to give input on what should be included in the new contract, including completing surveys, attending union meetings, texting or talking with union representatives, and emailing your local union office.

Meeting dates, sometimes referred to as bargaining sessions, are scheduled.

Two teams are established for the scheduled bargaining sessions, one representing the union members and the other representing the company. These negotiations can often take several rounds of meetings over the course of weeks or sometimes months. On the union side, we call the group representing the interests of all their co-workers at these meetings the “bargaining committee.”

Both sides hear each other’s ideas.

Formal negotiations sessions begin and both the employer and the bargaining committee listen to each other’s ideas and priorities. The process always includes formal discussions with notes taken so there is a record of what was said in case there is a question or dispute later on.

Your union and the company will go back and forth on terms.

During this time, both sides discuss and start to form the language of the contract. The union bargaining committee may request additional relevant information from the company to substantiate any of the employer’s claims, such as the impacts of various proposed changes on profitability. If common ground can’t be found, a neutral third-party mediator may be called in.

When both sides think they have come to a tentative agreement, the new contract is taken to you and your colleagues for a “ratification vote.”

The bargaining unit holds a vote, either in person or via mail. You will always have a say on whether to accept the tentative agreement or not. A contract is not considered to be in effect until the membership has voted to ratify it. Meanwhile, the company’s representatives also take the agreement to their stakeholders for approval.

Members accept or reject the contract.

If the majority of your bargaining unit votes no and rejects the contract, the bargaining committee and the company will typically restart negotiations and continue trying to work out a solution that both sides can agree on.

If the majority of your bargaining unit votes yes to accept the contract, it goes into effect.

Weingarten Rights

In the Weingarten case, the Supreme Court ruled that Union-represented workers have the right to Union representation during all meetings or discussions with supervisors or managers that the member reasonably believes might lead to discipline.  These meetings or discussions include discussions on the work floor, in work areas, offices and even outside the facility.

Nine times out of ten, stewards are the representatives who attend these meetings with workers. At the beginning of the meeting, this law requires the supervisor or manager to disclose all meeting topics and to give the member a chance to ask for a representative.  Members can demand the presence of any on-duty steward.  If none is available, the supervisor or manager must postpone the meeting until a steward is available.  Companies may not punish members for exercising their Weingarten rights.

Encourage all members to exercise their Weingarten rights.

This is important because a member waives the right to a witness if the member does not speak up and expressly request a witness.

The role of stewards in disciplinary meetings is to hear everything that is said, and to ensure that supervisors and managers do not question the member unfairly by, for example, putting words in the member’s mouth or by bullying members into agreeing to things they otherwise would not agree to.

When supervisors or managers ask unfair questions, stewards should interrupt and demand that the supervisor or manager ask questions clearly and fairly.  If they ask an awkward, run-on or confusing question, the steward can jump in and ask them to rephrase the question.  Similarly, the steward can jump in if the supervisor or manager tries to trick the member into agreeing to something.

Stewards can insist that supervisors and managers permit members to tell their side of the story and present their case, and can ask for meeting breaks to confer with members.

Common Labor Terms

If you hang around union people long enough, there’s terms that will keep popping up that can be confusing if you’ve never worked a union job before or had much experience with labor unions.

Authorization Card

A form voluntarily signed by an employee whereby the employee authorizes a labor organization (Union) to represent him/her for the purpose of collective bargaining. Some cards will also state that the employee desires an election to be held to determine whether or not the Union has the full support of the majority of the employees in the
bargaining unit.

Bargaining Agent

Union certified by a government agency, such as the National Labor Relations Board, or recognized voluntarily by the employer, as the exclusive representative of all employees in the bargaining unit for purposes of collective bargaining.

Bargaining Rights

The rights outlined in Section 7 of the National Labor Relations Act. Rights of workers to negotiate the terms and conditions of employment through chosen representatives. The bargaining agent is designated by a majority of the workers in a bargaining unit.

Bargaining Unit

A group of employees in a given workplace who have a sufficient similarity of interest to constitute a unit for the purpose of bargaining collectively with their employer. A bargaining unit is usually defined by the National Labor Relations Board, or similar federal, state or local agency.

Union Representative

(B.A., Business Agent): A full-time representative of a local union whose job it is to represent members in the local.

Card Check

Procedure whereby signed authorization cards are checked against a list of employees in a prospective bargaining unit to determine if the union has majority status. The employer may recognize the Union on the basis of this card check without the necessity of a formal election. Often conducted by an outside party.

Collective Bargaining

Negotiations between an Employer and Union, representing a group of employees, that determines the conditions of employment. The result of the Collective Bargaining Procedure is called the contract. Collective Bargaining is governed by Federal and State Statutory Laws, Administration Agency Regulations, and Judicial decisions.

Union Contract

An Agreement in writing between the Union, acting as bargaining agent and the Employer, covering wages, hours, working conditions, fringe benefits, rights of workers and union, and procedures to be followed in settling disputes and grievances.

Read More: Tired of empty promises? Get it in writing!


A formal complaint, usually lodged by an employee or the union, alleging a misinterpretation or improper application of one or more terms in a collective bargaining contract. The method for dealing with grievances is through a grievance procedure negotiated in the union contract. If a grievance cannot be settled at the supervisory level, it can be appealed to higher levels of management.

Grievance Arbitration

The appeal of grievances to an impartial arbitrator for final and binding determination. Sometimes called arbitration of “rights”. The arbitrator determines the meaning of the contract and clarifies and interprets its terms. Arbitration, where it is available, is usually the last step in the grievance procedure.

Grievance Procedure

The steps established in a collective bargaining contract for the handling of grievances made by or on behalf of employees.

Labor Organizer

A person usually employed by a union (often the regional or international union), whose function it is to help the employees of a particular employer through the organizing process and o% er guidance on the best ways to go about joining the union.

Made Whole

A catchall phrase used in grievance and other legal action where a remedy is sought from an employer. Often used in discharge and discipline cases where the union seeks to have a worker, who had been wrongly discharged or disciplined, returned to work and reimbursed all wages, benefits, or other conditions lost due to an employer’s unjustified action

Organizing Committee

The employees in a non-union shop who are designated to represent their co-workers during the representation campaign. Organizing committee members, among other things, usually sign up their coworkers on authorization cards or petitions acknowledging support for union representation, hand out leaflets, attend meetings and visit workers at home to gain support for the union effort.


The carrying of signs or the passing out of literature protesting working conditions or actions taken by the employer. Picketing occurs during a strike, or in the form of an informational picket. In this tactic, designed to put pressure on the employer, union members inform the public and other workers about the conditions they feel are unfair.

Rank and File

The members of a union. This term does not apply to the leadership of a union.


Formal approval of a newly negotiated agreement by vote of the union members affected.

Shop Steward/Steward

The union representative of a group of fellow employees who carries out duties of the union within the workplace.

EXAMPLE: Handling grievances, recruiting new members and monitoring compliance with the contract. The steward usually is either elected by other union members or appointed by higher union officials. The steward usually
remains an employee while handling union business. Some release time (with or without pay) may be available to stewards under specific language in many collective bargaining contracts.

Union Label or Bug

A stamp or tag on a product or card in a store or shop to show that the work is performed by union labor. The “bug” is the printer’s symbol.

Weingarten Rights

The rights of employees covered by the National Labor Relations Act to request union representation during investigatory interviews if they reasonably believe that the interview could result in their being disciplined. “Weingarten rights” also guarantee the rights of union representatives to assist and counsel employees during interviews which could lead to discipline.

For a longer list, download the UFCW Glossary of Labor Terminology [PDF].

The Value of Union Membership

Union membership is the best investment you can make in your working life. Here are some of the reasons why.

Guaranteed wage increases

Union members earn, on average, 26% more than their non-union counterparts, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. What’s more, UFCW Local 99 members get guaranteed wage increases based on the number of hours they work.

Quality health insurance

Union members are 40% more likely to have quality medical plans. UFCW Local 99’s benefit plans pay more than $200 million for health benefits annually, and thousands of prescriptions are filled each month at little or no charge.

A voice on the job

A voice on the job

Through the union negotiating process, you have a say about the terms of your employment and conditions at your workplace.

Holiday and vacation pay

You have days off and vacations that are guaranteed in your union contract, along with specific rates of pay if you work on holidays.

Grievance procedure

Grievance procedure

The grievance procedure was negotiated in our contracts to help any employee who feels he or she has been treated unfairly in any way. As a union member, you can’t be disciplined or fired just because your boss doesn’t like you, while those who don’t belong to a union are forced to work “at will.”

Seniority rights

Seniority rights

You have rights and protections that correspond with your years of service in your industry. For example, your employer may not replace you with another worker simply because he or she is younger and is paid lower wages.

The Union Advantage

In every state and every industry, union members earn more, get better benefits and have better working lives than those who have to “go it alone.”

Better Living

Everyone wants a safe and secure workplace with strong wages, excellent benefits and fair work schedules. Your union makes all this possible.

Better Wages

Better wages mean more economic power to build a good life for you and your family.

Better Benefits

Thanks to your union, you and your family can see a doctor when you need to. You can take a day off to be with a sick child. And when it’s time to retire, you can do so with confidence and security.

Smarter Schedules

Our contracts ensure guaranteed scheduling practices, enabling you to spend time with friends and family, attend classes and pursue your dreams with confidence.

The Union Difference

Participation in job-provided health insurance1

Union members are more likely to have quality health care as part of their employment.

Union workers


Nonunion workers


Participation in guaranteed (defined-benefit) pension plans

Union workers usually can look forward to a reliable income after they retire. Non-union workers are not as fortunate.

Union workers


Nonunion workers


Workers with paid sick leave

Union members are more likely to get the time off they need to recover from an illness or injury, or to care for a loved one.

Union workers


Nonunion workers



Union workers’ median weekly earnings


Nonunion workers’ median weekly earnings2

1 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in the United States, March 2020.
2 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Union Members 2018-2019, January 2020.

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